Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter
A ground fault circuit interrupter, or GFCI, is an inexpensive electrical safety device that can protect you and your family members from a serious electric shock.
Have you ever had an electric shock? While it is an unpleasant experience, it is not usually fatal. However, given the right conditions, the same shock could be fatal! If your body makes a solid connection to the ground, the shock could easily kill you. Here are two examples of a solid ground connection:
In other words, if you decide to operate your hedge trimmer in your bare feet and you get a shock, you may not survive it.
How Can a GFCI Help?
A GFCI is a special electrical outlet that prevents electric shocks in situations such as the ones described above. The GFCI monitors the electrical current leaving from and returning to the outlet. The current leaving the outlet should be the same amount as the returning current. If the current returning is less than that which leaves, the missing current could be passing through somebody’s body to the ground. The GFCI detects the mismatch and shuts off the electrical outlet in a split second.
Where Should GFCI Outlets Be Located?
GFCI outlets should be installed in any area that presents a risk of an electric shock with a direct path to the ground. In other words, anywhere you might directly touch the ground outside or anywhere where you might touch a part of the plumbing system. Some smart GFCIs locations are:
- Exterior outlets
- Kitchen counter outlets (not common in Canada)
- Bathroom outlets
- Garage outlets
- Outlets in unfinished basements
This is not a complete list. Areas near swimming pools, hot tubs, and so on should also include this type of outlet.
GFCIs are not perfect, however, and have been known to “nuisance trip” when connected to certain types of electrical equipment. For this reason, exceptions to the suggested (or required) locations for GFCIs exist. For example, a regular outlet would be a better choice for a freezer in your garage since the potential for nuisance tripping of the GCFI is high and might go undetected for days, leading to spoiled food in the shut-off freezer.
Several electrical outlets usually connect to a single circuit in an average home. A single GFCI outlet will protect all of the outlets in the circuit, even if the other outlets are not GFCIs. But the GFCI outlet must be the first outlet in the string in order for it to properly protect the other outlets, and, of course the connections have to be properly made.
Remote GFCIs sometimes cause confusion for home owners in the following ways:
A home owner thinks the bathroom does not have a GFCI because the outlet looks like a standard one. The standard outlet under the protection of a remote GFCI should have a sticker indicating its GFCI protection. The problem is, the sticker does not stick forever. A Pillar To Post® inspector can test this for you.
GFCIs are easy to test and should be tested every month. Simply press the test button on the outlet. You should hear a pop as the reset button pops out a little. To reset, just press the reset button. If the GFCI fails to trip, or if you are unable to reset it, it is time for an electrician to replace it.
Special breakers also provide GFCI protection to the entire circuit. These breakers can be installed instead of GFCI outlets. The GFCI breaker should also be tested monthly. You will recognize this breaker from the test and reset button.
GFCIs can help prevent injury and death from electric shock. It is a small device worth having to ensure the safety of your family members.
Source: Pillar To Post Information Series